Methodology

The main scope of this PSA is to provide a comparison price for the several conventional and alternative fuels under a common methodology approach. The following paragraphs analytically describe the methodology steps.

The FPC prices (€/100km) of conventional and alternative fuels are estimated by the following formula:

The first factor refers to the combined consumption tested by WLTP protocol for the best-selling vehicle per fuel type and per segment. The vehicle, ranking first in previous year sales and for each segment and fuel type, is selected.

In this scope, the following vehicle categories are considered:

  • Mono fuel / fuel gas vehicle
  • Pure electric vehicle (PEV)
  • Fuel cell vehicle (FCV)

The second factor refers to the average prices of each fuel type in the last three months, given in euros/national currency per fuel unit. Since there are regional differences in the market specifications of fuels, it is recommended that each MS should select the reference fuels for the FPC price calculation. The selected reference fuels are shown in the related table of each MS.

Special care has been given for the calculation of the average electricity price, taking into consideration the several available charger types in MS level. In specific, each MS will select the charger types among the following options:

  • Home charger
  • Work charger
  • Semi-public charger
  • Public charger
  • Fast charger

After selection of the charger types, the average price per charger type (in €/kWh) as well as the charging mix of these types for the last three months, are determined. The calculation of the average price for electricity will be estimated by summing the average price of each charger type, multiplied by the percentage of the charger mix:

In case that the aforementioned approach is not feasible, a MS as alternative solution can present two prices related to electricity, i.e. private charging average price and public charging average price.

GLOSSARY
Conventional fuels[1] Refers to non-renewable energy sources such as coal, coal products, crude oil, petroleum products and non-renewable wastes. These fuels originate from plants and animals that existed in the geological past (for example, millions of years ago). Fossil fuels can be also made by industrial processes from other fossil fuels; for example in the oil refinery, crude oil is transformed into motor gasoline.
Alternative fuels[2] Fuels or power sources which serve, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources in the energy supply to transport and which have the potential to contribute to its decarbonisation and enhance the environmental performance of the transport sector (i.e. electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, synthetic and paraffinic fuels, natural gas including CNG and LNG, LPG)
WLTP consumption protocol[3] The WLTP cycle is using real-driving data gathered from around the world, representing everyday driving profiles. This protocol could be used as global test for comparing worldwide pollutant, CO2 emission and fuel consumption values.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)[4] Methane rich gas stored at high pressure used as fuel in internal combustion engines.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)4 A mixture of light gaseous hydrocarbons. LPG is stored as a liquid under approx. 5 bar pressure predominantly for use in spark-ignition (SI) engines.
Recharging point2 An interface that is capable of charging one electric vehicle at a time or exchanging a battery of one electric vehicle at a time.
Normal / High recharging point2 “Normal”: a recharging point that allows for a transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle with a power less than or equal to 22 kW, excluding devices with a power less than or equal to 3,7 kW, which are installed in private households or the primary purpose of which is not recharging electric vehicles, and which are not accessible to the public.

 

“High”: a recharging point that allows for a transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle with a power of more than 22 kW.

Recharging or refueling point accessible to the public2 A recharging or refueling point to supply an alternative fuel which provides Union-wide non-discriminatory access to users. Non-discriminatory access may include different terms of authentication, use and payment.
Refueling point2 A refueling facility for the provision of any fuel with the exception of LNG, through a fixed or a mobile installation.
Selected Vehicle Categories[5]:

1.      Mono fuel / fuel gas vehicle

2.      Pure electric vehicle (PEV)

3.      Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV)

1.      A vehicle that is designed to run primarily on one fuel type

2.      a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing exclusively electric machines as propulsion energy converters and exclusively rechargeable electric energy storage systems as propulsion energy storage systems

3.      a vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing exclusively fuel cell(s) and electric machine(s) as propulsion energy converter(s)

[1] Eurostat, Glossary: Fossil fuels (https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Glossary:Fossil_fuel

[2] Directive 2014/94/EU, Article 2

[3] https://www.wltpfacts.eu/what-is-wltp-how-will-it-work/

[4] Alternative Fuels, Expert group report, (EUR-KI-02-17-940-EN-N), 2017

[5] COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2017/1151, 7.7.2017, Official Journal of the European Union, L 175/1